Cultures and Languages in Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda & Sao Tome and Principe

African Language Family Distributions & Migration. Courtesy of ResearchGate
African Language Family Distributions & Migration. Courtesy of ResearchGate

All the Cultures & Languages in Africa

Cultural Diversity in Mauritius

Since independence in 1968 – a former British Empire territory, Mauritius, an island country of 2,040 km2, located off the south-eastern coast of Africa, got about on the task of rapidly expanding, with huge success, earning it the sobriquet of ‘tiger’ of the Indian Ocean. Now home to almost 1.3 million (2018), the people fall in five major groups, blended from its history as both a British and French land: Indo-Mauritian (68.5%), Creole (27.1%), Sino-Mauritian (3.1%), the Franco -Mauritian (1%) and the splinter group of the Chagos Islanders.


Cultural Diversity in Morocco

The Berber group, who were first to inhabit Morocco 5,000 years ago, are the biggest tribe, making up 50.1% of the populace. Locally dubbed as Shlooh, they are split into three major groups: Berbers from the Rif settled in north, who speak Tarifit; the Berbers from the Middle Atlas area, who speak Tamazight; and those from the High Atlas and Souss South area, who speak Tashelheet. Next to settle-in, in the Seventh Century, the Arabs, account for 40.2% of the citizenry. Arabic is the official language in Morocco Arabic, with most no matter the ethnic family, using it. Owing to its recent past as colony of France up until 1956, French is also moderately used. 446,550 km2 in surface area with a population of 36 million (2018) its locale in North Africa has also influenced language and culture, with Spanish been spoken fairly


Cultural Diversity in Mozambique

There are at least ten languages used across Mozambique, key among these being Emakhuwa (26%), Xichangana (11%), the official language of Portuguese (8.8%), Elomwe (8%), Cisena (7%) and Echuwabo 5.8%. The lesser ethnic groups and dialects include Swahili, Chopi, Sena, Tsonga, Makonde, Kimwani, Makhuwa, Chuwabu, Ronga, and Lomwi. When Mozambique gained self-rule from Portugal, in 1975, the challenge of re-turning the assimilados to Mozambicans citizens arose. Covering 801,590 km2 with a population of almost 30 million (2018), there is strong expression of cultures via poetry, song and art across Mozambique.


Cultural Diversity in Namibia

Situated in Southern Africa with its western border straddling the Atlantic Ocean, Namibia, with a surface area of 825,419 km2 and population of 2.51 million (2018) equating to a density of 2 people per km2, holds one of the lowest population distribution, globally. There are about 13 unique ethnic groups, and, with its history as a German Colony and under South Africa apartheid, aspects of these regimes. Alongside the Khoisan are groups including: Setwana, Owambo, Herero, Kavango, Tswana, Himba, Caprivians, Nama, Kuhane, and Damara.


Cultural Diversity in Niger

Situated in the Sahel, the eye of the sun in Africa, settlement in Niger is dictated by its natural environment, much of it hot and dry, with about half being desert wasteland. Despite its whooping sphere of 1.267 million km2, the 6th largest in Africa, its populace is still under 25.1 million, mostly dwelling in the southern quarter where the only arable land in the country is found. Howbeit, Niger has been inhabited for more than 6,000 years. The eminent Hausa Kingdom thrived here as far back as thirteenth Century. Today, the Hausa language is expressed by 50% of its citizenry. Other native dialects include: Djerma, Fulani, Manga, Zarma, Tuareg, Songhai, Kanuri, Tebu, Fulfulde, Buduma Tassawaq and Arabic. The official languages are French and Arabic.


Cultural Diversity in Nigeria

Without doubt, the most culture diverse state in all of Africa, and perhaps world wide, there are no less than 370 different languages spoken throughout Nigeria. All these dialects are split into three extensive linguistic groups: Nilo-Saharan, Afro-Asiatic and Niger-Congo; the latter having at least ten major branches. Considered the meeting place of Africa’s vast culture, religions and ethnicities. Currently, the most populous of the countries in Africa, home to 196 million (2018), her diversity has not always been a “blessing”, sparking ethnic clashes over the eras. English is the most spoken language in Nigeria. Other major dialects include: Hausa, Ibibio, Yoruba, Igbo, Fula, Edo, Tiv, Izon, Nupe, Igala and Creole.


Cultural Diversity in Rwanda

Rwanda – 26,338 km2 in size with a population of 12.1 million (2019) – has two major groups: Hutus (85%) and Tutsi (14%), and the minority Twa (1%). For millennia, these three ethnically distinct tribes coexisted genially. The Tutsis, an elite minority, are generally tall and slim, and were traditionally pastoralists. Hutus majority are stocky and stronger by fibre, and have for eons being traditionally farmers. The Twa, a marginalized minority group, are a community of pygmy. It wasn’t up until Belgian colonization that the antipathy between the Hutus and Tutsi became ideated on race


Cultural Diversity in Sao Tome and Principe

São Tomé and Príncipe, an archipelago of volcanic origin in the Gulf of Guinea, just south of the Equator and 321 km west of Gabon on Africa’s mainland, has a land surface area of 1,001 km2 and with a population of 211,028 (2018) is the 2nd least populated African country, after Seychelles. It has five key tribes: Mesticos, descended from African workers and Europeans, are also dubbed as filhos da terra; Forros are the descendants of the slaves freed at abolition; whilst the Servicais are contracted African plantation slaves from elsewhere in Africa – Angola, Mozambique, and Cape Verde; Tongas delineate their descendants, born on the island; Angolares are descended from Angolan survivors of a 16th Cent. shipwreck. The sixth society are Europeans notably Portuguese.


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  3. Cultures & Languages in Central Africa Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Republic of Congo, Cote d’Ivoire, Djibouti, and Equatorial Guinea
  4. Cultures & Languages in Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, and Guinea Bissau
  5. Cultures & Languages in Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, and Mauritania
  6. Cultures & Languages in Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe
  7. Cultures & Languages in Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, and Swaziland
  8. Cultures & Languages in Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe